top of page



Dr Frans J Cronje is a Medical Practitioner, with an MBChB (UP) cum laude, BSc(Hons) in Aerospace Medicine (cum laude); an MSc in Aerospace Medicine (cum laude), and a Post Graduate Diploma in Occupational Medicine (cum laude), all registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. He has received training in South Africa and in the USA and has been licensed to practice medicine in both countries. Over the past 25 years he has specialized in Aviation Medicine; Hyperbaric Medicine; Tinnitus (ringing in the ears); Balance Disorders & Rehabilitation; Wound Care; and Spirituality & Health at Pretoria University (RSA), Duke University (USA), the University of Southampton (UK) and Emory University in Atlanta (USA) respectively. 

His previous professional experience includes:

  • 1 Military Hospital: Internship (1992)

  • Medical Officer Dept Anaesthesia, 1992 - 1993

  • Institute for Aviation Medicine (IAM): Director of Hyperbaric Unit, 1993 – 1998

  • Senior Aviation Medical Examiner, 1993 - present

  • Medical Rescue International (DivEvac): Medical Director, 1993 - 1996

  • Duke University Medical Centre; Durham; NC; USA. Centre for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology: Hyperbaric Academic Fellowship, 2002 – 2003. 

  • Invited professor – Director of Aerospace Medicine Programme (as part of postgraduate Baromedicine Degree) at the University of Belgrade, School of Medicine, Yugoslavia (now Serbia), 1998 – present.  

  • Programme Developer & Course Director for: (1) Bennett & Elliott’s Physiology and Medicine of Diving Course: 13-26 March 2002; 12-19 August 2006; (2) Diving & Hyperbaric Medicine Staff Training Course; 1997-present; Course Director (14 courses to date – 2 international) (3) HPCSA licensing course for audiologists in vestibular assessment: Vestibular Assessment and Rehabilitation Course, with course co-director, Christine Rogers, UCT -10-17 March 2008.

  • University of Pretoria, Department of Internal Medicine; Division of Aerospace Medicine: Extraordinary Senior Lecturer, part-time, 2006 - 2008; Lecturer & External Examiner in Aerospace Medicine, 1996 – 2005; Honorary Appointment: Department of Anaesthesiology, March 2000-2001;

  • On Faculty of 15 international wound care, diving medicine & hyperbaric medicine courses in the US and Europe.

  • Delivered International Position Papers: HBO & Cerebral Palsy (Malta; 2000) at the European Undersea & Baromedical Society Annual Scientific Meeting; HBO and Stroke (San Francisco; 2005) at the International Congress of Hyperbaric Medicine Triennial Scientific Meeting; Cost-effectiveness of HBO in Wound Care (Ravenna; 2006).

  • Member of the Expert Jury for European Consensus Conference on Oxygen and Tissue Repair – October 2006 (Ravenna, Italy).

  • Eugene Marais Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Centre: Owner, Private Medical Practitioner & Medical Director, 1998 to 2007.


  • Academic colours: University of Pretoria (1991) MBChB; (1997) BSc (Hons) Aerospace Medicine; MScAerospace Medicine (2006).

  • Poseidon award (South Africa): Contributions to Diving Safety. Rescue Sunday 1996

  • DAN America Award 1999: Contributions to Diving Safety & Research

  • Duke University Department of Anaesthesia, Dick Smith Post-Doctoral Clinical Research Award for“characteristics of doubtful versus non-doubtful cases of decompression illness in recreational divers.”2003

  • Postgraduate publication award in 2005/6 University of Pretoria; Faculty of Health Sciences. 2006


Selected Publications:


Peer-Reviewed Journals

  1. Cronje FJ, Sommers LS, Faulkner JK, Meintjes WA, Van Wijk CH, Turner RP. Effect of a Faith-Based Education Program on Self-Assessed Physical, Mental and Spiritual (Religious) Health Parameters. J Relig Health 2015. 10.1007/s10943-015-0129-z

  2. Blum K, Febo M, Smith DE, Roy AK, 3rd, Demetrovics Z, Cronje FJ, Femino J, Agan G, Fratantonio JL, Pandey SC, Badgaiyan RD, Gold MS. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2015;25:286-92.

  3. Kotze MJ, Luckhoff HK, Peeters AV, Baatjes K, Schoeman M, van der Merwe L, Grant KA, Fisher LR, van der Merwe N, Pretorius J, van Velden DP, Myburgh EJ, Pienaar FM, van Rensburg SJ, Yako YY, September AV, Moremi KE, Cronje FJ, Tiffin N, Bouwens CS, Bezuidenhout J, Apffelstaedt JP, Hough FS, Erasmus RT, Schneider JW. Genomic medicine and risk prediction across the disease spectrum. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2015;52:120-37.

  4. Blum K, Liu Y, Wang W, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Oscar-Berman M, Smolen A, Febo M, Han D, Simpatico T, Cronje FJ, Demetrovics Z, Gold MS. rsfMRI effects of KB220Z on neural pathways in reward circuitry of abstinent genotyped heroin addicts. Postgrad Med 2015;127:232-41.

  5. Weir GR, Smart H, van Marle J, Cronje FJ, Sibbald RG. Arterial disease ulcers, part 2: treatment. Advances in skin & wound care 2014;27:462-76; quiz 76-8.

  6. Weir GR, Smart H, van Marle J, Cronje FJ. Arterial disease ulcers, part 1: clinical diagnosis and investigation. Advances in skin & wound care 2014;27:421-8; quiz 9-30.

  7. Davis W, van Rensburg SJ, Cronje FJ, et al. The fat mass and obesity-associated FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is associated with elevated homocysteine levels in patients with multiple sclerosis screened for vascular risk factors. Metabolic brain disease 2014;29:409-19.

  8. Blum K, Febo M, McLaughlin T, Cronje FJ, Han D, Gold SM. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS) as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric. Journal of behavioral addictions 2014;3:149-56.

  9. Cronje FJ, Meintjes WA, Bennett PB, Fitchat S, Marroni A, Hyldegaard O. Analysis of clinical outcomes of linear vs. deep stop decompression from 3.5 to 6 atmospheres absolute (350 - 600 kpa) in awake rats. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine: journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc 2011;38:41-8.

  10. Niinikoski J, Bakker D, Cronje FJ, et al. ECHM-ETRS joint conference on oxygen and tissue repair, Ravenna, Italy, October 27-28, 2006: recommendations by the international jury. The international journal of lower extremity wounds 2007;6:139-42.

  11. Mitchell SJ, Cronje FJ, Meintjes WA, Britz HC. Fatal respiratory failure during a "technical" rebreather dive at extreme pressure. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 2007;78:81-6.

  12. Bennett PB, Marroni A, Cronje FJ, et al. Effect of varying deep stop times and shallow stop times on precordial bubbles after dives to 25 msw (82 fsw). Undersea & hyperbaric medicine: journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc 2007;34:399-406.

  13. Marroni A, Bennett PB, Cronje FJ, et al. A deep stop during decompression from 82 fsw (25 m) significantly reduces bubbles and fast tissue gas tensions. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine: journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc 2004;31:233-43.

  14. Cronje FJ, Carraway MS, Freiberger JJ, Suliman HB, Piantadosi CA. Carbon monoxide actuates O(2)-limited heme degradation in the rat brain. Free radical biology & medicine 2004;37:1802-12.

  15. MacFarlane C, Cronje FJ. Hyperbaric oxygen and surgery. South African journal of surgery Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir chirurgie 2001;39:117-21.

  16. MacFarlane C, Cronje FJ, Benn CA. Hyperbaric oxygen in trauma and surgical emergencies. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 2000;146:185-90.

  17. Cronje FJ. A review of the Marx protocols: prevention and management of osteoradionecrosis by combining surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging 1998;53:469-71.



  1. Cronjé FJ. Examination of Sport Scuba Divers. SAFP; 11:294-297. 1991.

  2. Cronjé FJ. Diving Accidents in Southern Africa. Dive Southern Africa Jan- Dec 95 (6 issues)

  3. Cronjé FJ, MacFarlane C. Review Article: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in RSA in the 1990's. Nov 2002.

  4. Cronjé FJ. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Cerebral Palsy – A position paper. EUBS Workshop. Malta, 14-17 September 2000.

  5. Cronjé FJ. History of recreational scuba diving. Dr Peter Bennett Symposium 2004, Durham, NC: 42-49.


Editorial Letters

  1. Cronjé FJ. Oxygen therapy and wound healing--topical oxygen is not hyperbaric oxygen therapy. S Afr Med J 2005;95(11):840.

  2. Cronje F. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with cerebral palsy. S Afr Med J 2001;91:615-6.

  3. Cronjé FJ. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with cerebral palsy. S Afr Med J 1999;89(4):359-60; author reply 361.

  4. Williams KA, Cronje FJ, Avenant L, Villet MH. Identifying flies used in maggot debridement therapy. S Afr Med J 2008;98(2):630-631


MSc Thesis

Cronjé FJ. A study of the application of reduction gas analysis in determining the relationship between carboxyhaemoglobin and tissue CO levels in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle after extreme exposure to CO poisoning in rats: Masters of Science Thesis: University of Pretoria, 2006.


Book Chapters

  1. Cronjé FJ. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. In Handbook for Air Medical Crew, Trauma Link. 2001.

  2. Cronjé FJ, van Bever Donker S C, Burman F, Taite AJ, and Fitzpatrick L V. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy -- a position paper. In The Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Hyperbaric Oxygenation in Cerebral Palsy and the Brain-Injured Child. Best Publishing. Flagstaff, AZ. 2002: 131-150

  3. Cronjé FJ, Duim W. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy acute and sub-acute stroke – a correlation between stroke type and response to HBO exposure in fifteen patients. In The Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Congress on Hyperbaric Medicine. Best Publishing. Flagstaff, AZ. 2003: 266-269.

  4. Marroni A, Cronjé FJ, Meintjes WAJ et al. Dysbaric Illness. In Handbook of Hyperbaric Medicine. Springer-Verlag; London. 2005:701-748

  5. Cronjé FJ, Duim W, Marroni A et al. Cerebrovascular Incidents (Stroke). In Handbook of Hyperbaric Medicine. Springer-Verlag; London. 2005:553-565

  6. Weir G, Cronje FJ. Chapter 8: Ischemia and hypoxia: the therapeutic options. In The Wound Care Practice, 2nd Ed. Sheffield PJ, Smith P (eds). Best Publishing. Flagstaff, AZ. 2007:501-511.



  1. Balestra C, Germonpre P, Marroni A, Cronjé FJ. PFO and the diver. Best Publishing. Flagstaff, AZ. 2007.

  2. Bennett PB, Cronjé FJ, Campbell E. Fitness to dive for scuba divers and diving instructors. Flagstaff, AZ: Best Publishing, 2006.

Professional Profile - Dr. Frans J. Cronjé


bottom of page